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Is Bard Better than ChatGPT? | blog@CACM


2023.07.13: Bard is now available in more than 40 new languages and over 230 countries, including all 27 countries in the European Union. A test should show whether Bard is more powerful than ChattGPT or AI powered Microsoft Bing, see also ChatGPT Invents a Lot of Nonsense | blog@CACM | Communications of the ACM and What Does AI-Powered Microsoft Bing Say? | blog@CACM | Communications of the ACM. To anticipate: even Bard sometimes invents strange things. One wonders where the incorrect information (partially marked in red) comes from. References are missing.

Why are there so few German-speaking Turing laureates?

Proposal 1:

There are a few reasons why there are so few German-speaking Turing laureates.

  • The post-war decline of German science. After World War II, Germany was divided and its scientific infrastructure was severely damaged. This led to a brain drain, as many of the best German scientists emigrated to other countries.
  • The rise of English as the language of science. In the post-war years, English became the lingua franca of science. This made it more difficult for German-speaking scientists to publish their work and be recognized by their peers.
  • The focus of German research. German research has traditionally been more focused on fundamental mathematics and theoretical computer science. These areas are less likely to lead to the kind of technological breakthroughs that are rewarded with the Turing Award.

However, there are some German-speaking scientists who have made significant contributions to computer science and have been recognized with other prestigious awards. For example, Horst Zuse was awarded the Computer Pioneer Award in 1993 for his work on the Z3 computer, which was one of the first programmable computers. Niklaus Wirth was awarded the ACM Grace Hopper Award in 1984 for his work on the Pascal programming language. It is possible that in the future, there will be more German-speaking Turing laureates. The German research community is recovering from the post-war decline, and English is becoming more widely spoken in Germany. Additionally, there is a growing interest in artificial intelligence and machine learning in Germany, which are areas where German scientists are making significant contributions.

Proposal 2:

There are a few reasons why there are so few German-speaking Turing laureates.

  • The history of computing in German-speaking countries. The history of computing in German-speaking countries is not as long or as well-funded as in other parts of the world, such as the United States and the United Kingdom. This is due in part to the fact that Germany was divided for much of the 20th century, and that the Cold War led to a brain drain of scientists from East Germany.
  • The language barrier. The German language is not as widely spoken as English, which can make it more difficult for German-speaking researchers to publish their work in top journals and conferences. This can also make it more difficult for them to collaborate with researchers from other countries.
  • The political climate. The political climate in Germany has not always been conducive to innovation in the field of computing. For example, the Nazi government banned the use of computers in some areas, and the Cold War led to a focus on military applications of computing.

Despite these challenges, there have been some notable German-speaking Turing laureates, including Niklaus Wirth, Konrad Zuse, and Horst Feistel. Wirth was a pioneer in the field of programming languages, and his work on Pascal and Modula-2 had a profound impact on the development of software engineering. Zuse was a self-taught engineer who built the first programmable computer in Germany. Feistel was a cryptographer who played a key role in the development of the Data Encryption Standard (DES).It is likely that we will see more German-speaking Turing laureates in the future, as the field of computing continues to grow and develop in Germany. However, the challenges mentioned above will continue to make it difficult for German-speaking researchers to achieve the same level of recognition as their counterparts in other countries.

Proposal 3:

There are a few reasons why there are so few German-speaking Turing laureates.

  • The Cold War. The Cold War had a significant impact on the development of computer science in Germany. Many German scientists and engineers fled the country after World War II, and those who remained often were hampered by the restrictions of the East German government. As a result, German computer science lagged behind that of the United States and other Western countries.
  • The language barrier. German is not as widely spoken as English, which can make it more difficult for German-speaking scientists to publish their work in international journals and to collaborate with researchers from other countries.
  • The focus on theoretical computer science. German computer science has traditionally focused on theoretical computer science, rather than on the practical applications of computing. This focus may have made it less likely for German researchers to be recognized for their work with the Turing Award, which is often awarded for contributions to the practical aspects of computing.

Despite these factors, there have been a few German-speaking Turing laureates. In 1977, Niklaus Wirth was awarded the Turing Award for his contributions to the design of programming languages. In 1995, Adi Shamir was awarded the Turing Award for his work on public-key cryptography. And in 2004, Peter Naur was awarded the Turing Award for his contributions to the development of the formal language theory.

It is possible that we will see more German-speaking Turing laureates in the future. As the field of computer science becomes more globalized, and as the language barrier becomes less of an obstacle, German-speaking researchers will be more likely to be recognized for their work.

Note: The only known German-speaking Turing Award winner is Niklaus Wirth.

 

Which are the most important computer museums in Europe?

In each of the following suggestions, Bard shows a picture of the museum.

Proposal 1:

Here are some of the most important computer museums in Europe:

  • The Heinz Nixdorf Museum Forum in Paderborn, Germany, is the world’s largest computer museum. It houses a vast collection of computers, from the earliest models to the most recent, as well as exhibits on the history of computing and the development of the digital age.
  • The Computerspielemuseum Berlin in Berlin, Germany, is dedicated to the history of video games. It features a collection of over 3,000 games, from early arcade games to modern console titles. The museum also offers educational programs and events.
  • The Musée Bolo in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, is a museum of computing and digital culture. It has a collection of over 1,000 computers, as well as exhibits on the history of computing, the Internet, and video games.
  • The London Science Museum in London, England, has a collection of computers and other computing-related artifacts. The museum’s collection includes the first commercial computer, the Colossus, as well as the first personal computer, the Altair 8800.
  • The Tekniska Museet in Stockholm, Sweden, has a collection of computers and other computing-related artifacts. The museum’s collection includes the first Swedish computer, the BESK, as well as the first laptop computer, the Osborne 1.

These are just a few of the many computer museums in Europe. If you are interested in the history of computing, be sure to check out one of these museums on your next trip to Europe.

Note: The Musée Bolo is located in Lausanne, the Colossus in Bletchley Park.

Proposal 2:

Here are some of the most important computer museums in Europe:

  • The Heinz Nixdorf Museum Forum in Paderborn, Germany, is the world’s largest computer museum. It houses a collection of over 100,000 exhibits, dating from the early 20th century to the present day.
  • The Computerspielemuseum Berlin in Berlin, Germany, is dedicated to the history of video games. It features a collection of over 250 consoles and computers, as well as a library of over 20,000 games.
  • The Musée Bolo in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, is a museum of computing and digital culture. It features a collection of over 1,000 exhibits, including computers, video games, and software.
  • The National Museum of Computing in Bletchley Park, U.K., is a museum dedicated to the history of computing and codebreaking. It features a collection of over 3,000 exhibits, including the Colossus computer, which was used to crack German Enigma codes during World War II.
  • The Tekniska Museet in Stockholm, Sweden, is a science and technology museum that has a large collection of computer-related exhibits. These include the world’s first commercial computer, the Ferranti Mark 1, and the first personal computer, the Altair 8800.

These are just a few of the many great computer museums in Europe. If you are interested in the history of computing, be sure to check out one of these museums on your next trip to Europe.

Proposal 3:

Here are some of the most important computer museums in Europe:

  • The Heinz Nixdorf Museum Forum in Paderborn, Germany, is the world’s largest computer museum. It houses a collection of over 100,000 exhibits, including early computers, video games, and software.
  • The Computerspielemuseum Berlin in Berlin, Germany, is dedicated to the history of computer games. It features exhibits on classic games from the 1970s and 1980s, as well as more recent titles.
  • The Musée Bolo in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, is a museum of computing and digital culture. It has exhibits on the history of computers, as well as interactive displays on topics such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality.
  • The National Museum of Computing in Bletchley Park, England, is a museum dedicated to the history of computing and codebreaking. It houses a collection of early computers, including the Colossus, which was used to crack German Enigma codes during World War II.
  • The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California, is a private museum that is dedicated to the history of computing. It has a collection of over 90,000 artifacts, including early computers, software, and documentation.

These are just a few of the many great computer museums in Europe. If you are interested in the history of computing, I encourage you to visit one of these museums.

 

Which are the leading museums of science and technology in Europe?

In each of the following suggestions, Bard shows a picture of the museum.

Proposal 1:

Here are some of the leading museums of science and technology in Europe:

  • Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany. It is the world’s largest science and technology museum, with an enormous collection of objects across 50 different fields.
  • Science Museum in London, England. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in London, with a collection that covers the history of science and technology from the 17th century to the present day.
  • Principe Felipe Science Museum in Barcelona, Spain. It is a modern science museum with interactive exhibits that explore a wide range of scientific topics.
  • Technorama in Winterthur, Switzerland. It is a science and technology museum with a focus on transportation.
  • Nemo Science Museum in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is a hands-on science museum with exhibits that explore the natural world and the human body.
  • Museo Galileo in Florence, Italy. It is a museum dedicated to the life and work of Galileo Galilei, one of the most important figures in the history of science.
  • CosmoCaixa Barcelona in Barcelona, Spain. It is a science museum with a focus on astronomy and space exploration.
  • Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie in Paris, France. It is a large science museum with interactive exhibits that explore a wide range of scientific topics.
  • Technisches Museum Wien in Vienna, Austria. It is a science and technology museum with a focus on transportation and industrial history.

These are just a few of the many great science and technology museums in Europe. With so many to choose from, you’re sure to find one that’s perfect for you.

Proposal 2:

Here are some of the leading museums of science and technology in Europe:

  • Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany. The world’s largest science and technology museum, with a collection of over 70,000 exhibits.
  • London Science Museum, London, U.K. One of the most popular museums in the U.K., with exhibits on a wide range of scientific topics, from space exploration to natural history.
  • Pavilion of Discovery, Milan, Italy. A hands-on science museum with interactive exhibits that explore the natural world and the human body.
  • Nemo Science Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands. A floating science museum with exhibits on topics such as energy, the human body, and the environment.
  • Technorama, Sinsheim, Germany. A science and technology park with a collection of over 1,000 exhibits, including a space shuttle replica and a working oil rig.
  • Museo Galileo, Florence, Italy. A museum dedicated to the life and work of Galileo Galilei, with exhibits on astronomy, physics, and mathematics.
  • Cité des sciences et de l’industrie, Paris, France. A science museum with a focus on interactive exhibits, including a planetarium and a 4D cinema.
  • CosmoCaixa Barcelona, Spain. A science museum with a focus on astronomy and space exploration, with exhibits such as a replica of the Hubble Space Telescope.

These are just a few of the many great science and technology museums in Europe. With so many to choose from, you’re sure to find one that’s perfect for you.

Note: The museum in Sinsheim is called Technikmuseum. Technoseum is the name of a museum in Mannheim, Germany.

Proposal 3:

Here are some of the leading museums of science and technology in Europe:

  • Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany. It is the world’s largest science and technology museum, with an enormous collection of objects across 50 different fields.
  • Science Museum in London, England. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in London, with a collection that spans the history of science and technology.
  • Museo Galileo in Florence, Italy. It is a museum dedicated to the life and work of Galileo Galilei, and it houses a collection of scientific instruments from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
  • Nemo Science Museum in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is a hands-on science museum that is popular with children and adults alike.
  • Technorama in Sinsheim, Germany. It is a science and technology museum with a focus on transportation.
  • Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany. It is a science museum that is designed to be interactive and engaging.
  • CosmoCaixa Barcelona in Barcelona, Spain. It is a science museum with a focus on astronomy and space exploration.
  • Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie in Paris, France. It is a science museum with a focus on the human body and the environment.

These are just a few of the many great science and technology museums in Europe. With so many to choose from, you’re sure to find one that interests you.

Note: The selection is only convincing to a limited extent. For example, the Musée des arts et métiers, Paris, is missing.

 

Are there any technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections?

In each of the following suggestions, Bard shows a picture of the museum.

Proposal 1:

Yes, there are many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. Here are a few of the most notable:

  • The Science Museum in London, U.K., is home to one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive computer collections. It includes early computers like the ENIAC and the Colossus, as well as more recent machines like the Apple I and the IBM PC.
  • The Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany is another major museum with a large computer collection. It includes machines from all over the world, from the first mechanical computers to the latest supercomputers.
  • The Computer History Museum in Boston, MA, USA, is technically not in Europe, but it’s worth mentioning because it has one of the best computer collections in the world. It includes machines from the earliest days of computing to the present day.
  • The Tekniska Museet in Stockholm, Sweden is a great place to learn about the history of technology, including computers. It has a large collection of early computers, as well as interactive exhibits that allow visitors to learn about how computers work.
  • The Museo Galileo in Florence, Italy, is a museum dedicated to the history of science and technology. It has a small but significant collection of early computers, including the first Italian computer, the Olivetti Elea 9003.

These are just a few of the many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. If you’re interested in learning more about the history of computing, be sure to check out one of these museums.

Note: Eniac did not survive. The Computer History Museum is located in Mountain View, California.

Proposal 2:

Yes, there are many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. Here are a few of the most notable:

  • The Science Museum, London, is home to one of the world’s most comprehensive collections of computers, including the first commercial computer, the Manchester Mark 1, and the first personal computer, the Altair 8800.
  • The Deutsches Museum, Munich, is another major museum with a significant computer collection. The museum’s collection includes early computers from Germany, as well as more recent machines from around the world.
  • The Computer History Museum, Boston, is a U.S. museum, but it has a branch in London that houses a collection of historical computers from Europe.
  • The Tekniska Museet, Stockholm, is a Swedish museum that has a collection of computers from the 1950s to the present day.
  • The Computer Museum, Vienna, is a small museum with a collection of early computers from Austria and neighboring countries.

These are just a few of the many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. If you are interested in learning more about the history of computing, I encourage you to visit one of these museums.

Proposal 3:

Yes, there are many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. Here are a few of the most notable:

  • The Science Museum in London, U.K., has one of the largest and most comprehensive computer collections in the world. It includes early computers like the ENIAC and Colossus, as well as more modern machines like the Apple I and the BBC Micro.
  • The Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, is another major museum with a significant computer collection. It includes the world’s first commercial computer, the Z1, as well as the first personal computer, the Altair 8800.
  • The Computer History Museum in Boston, USA, has a European branch in Bilbao, Spain. This museum has a wide variety of computer-related artifacts, including early programming languages, video games, and even a working model of the Internet.
  • The Tekniska Museet in Stockholm, Sweden, has a collection of over 50,000 objects related to technology and science, including a number of early computers.
  • The Museum of Technology in Vienna, Austria, has a collection of over 100,000 objects related to technology and science, including a number of early computers.

These are just a few of the many technology and science museums in Europe with significant computer collections. If you’re interested in learning more about the history of computing, be sure to visit one of these museums.

Note: The Z3 and Z4 are located in the Deutsches Museum. For example, the Musée des arts et métiers, Paris, is missing.

 

Bard generally makes a better impression than ChatGPT, but the reliability also leaves a lot to be desired. As further research shows, Bard also sometimes spreads nonsense.

 

References

Bruderer, Herbert: Meilensteine der Rechentechnik, De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin/Boston, 3. Auflage 2020, Band 1, 970 Seiten, 577 Abbildungen, 114 Tabellen, https://www.degruyter.com/view/title/567028?rskey=xoRERF&result=7

Bruderer, Herbert: Meilensteine der Rechentechnik, De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin/Boston, 3. Auflage 2020, Band 2, 1055 Seiten, 138 Abbildungen, 37 Tabellen, https://www.degruyter.com/view/title/567221?rskey=A8Y4Gb&result=4

Bruderer, Herbert: Milestones in Analog and Digital Computing, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, 3rd edition 2020, 2 volumes, 2113 pages, 715 illustrations, 151 tables, translated from the German by John McMinn, https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783030409739

 

Herbert Bruderer (herbert.bruderer@bluewin.ch; bruderer@retired.ethz.ch) is a retired lecturer in the Department of Computer Science at ETH Zurich and a historian of technology.


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